Reports and articles

On this page you can find various reports and articles relevant for the project.


Full reports

This report is part of the cost benefit analysis work package in AEGIS and serves the economic part of the analysis, where the two others are environmental and social. All the three AEGIS use cases are covered in this report. The main objectives of Work Package 7 (Cost benefit analysis) in AEGIS are to:
- Define Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to do a quantitative Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)
- Perform analyses of economic, environmental, and social effects of AEGIS proposals
- Combine to overall CBA, covering all three factors, and compare it with today’s solutions
- Identify “win-win” solutions that give the best overall benefits at the lowest possible cost

The win-win solutions report will soon be published.

This report describes a refinement and further development of a safety and security analysis method developed in AEGIS, and is documented in the modelling tool Enterprise Architect, employing UML diagrams to describe the target system and mission, which is based on methods described in the H2020 AUTOSHIP and Seatonomy projects.
This report illustrates the refined methodology by applying it to an example mission based on AEGIS Use Case B, specifically a RoRo barge route between Rotterdam and Ghent. Based on this example mission, a set of System Control Tasks and Mission Phases have been defined, and these are subject to a generic safety and security analysis where activities, threats and risks are described and assessed with the help of various UML diagrams. The analysis is not exhaustive, but rather an example of how the methodology can be used.

The European waterborne transport system faces challenges in shifting cargo from road to sea transport, despite the importance of the European maritime transport policy for sustainable growth. The implementation of the AEGIS project provides an opportunity to overcome these challenges and promote a more efficient and sustainable transport system. However, successful implementation and governance of AEGIS require addressing gaps, creating a supportive policy environment, and strengthening coordination and collaboration among stakeholders.
To address implementation failures, policymakers must identify and bridge gaps caused by inadequate resources, limited stakeholder involvement, and insufficient coordination. Comprehensive gap analyses can inform targeted strategies such as securing funding and establishing public-private partnerships to integrate AEGIS technologies into existing infrastructure. Engaging key stakeholders early in the policymaking process fosters collaborative problem-solving and proactive solution development.
To govern AEGIS's technological disruption, policymakers should address implementation gaps and technology traps. This involves fostering an environment that encourages innovation, collaboration, and adaptation within the logistics chain. Stakeholder engagement and alignment of interests through dialogue platforms are essential. Incentive structures tailored to stakeholder needs, such as financial support, regulatory exemptions, or preferential infrastructure access, can drive desired behaviours. Balancing incentives with measures like increased taxes and fees on road transport can encourage the shift to sustainable alternatives.

This report provides an overview of the legal and regulatory challenges associated with introducing a new European waterborne transport system, as developed under the AEGIS project. The report emphasizes the importance of transitioning to waterborne transport for sustainability, reducing CO2 emissions, improving energy efficiency, and mitigating road congestion. However, it also highlights the legal and regulatory hurdles that arise due to the technological and logistical innovations required for such a transition.
The AEGIS concept proposes a holistic approach to waterborne transportation, considering it as a system rather than independent modes. This approach presents challenges in terms of rulemaking, as it involves not only navigation laws but also regulations concerning ship design, terminal operations, and port development. Additionally, the differences in legal regimes between offshore and inland navigation further complicate establishing consistent communication between the two.
The focus of the report is primarily on advanced ships equipped with remote control or full autonomy for navigation and cargo handling, which are the core of the AEGIS project. It identifies the legal challenges associated with these advanced ships and discusses the various stages involved in implementing the new waterborne transport system, ranging from system design to cargo handling and terminal expansion. Special attention is given to the role of lawmakers and regulators in facilitating the transition of cargo from road to sea when autonomous vessels are involved.

The AEGIS project introduces a new European waterborne transport system aimed at revitalizing the role of waterborne transport in cargo transportation. The project consortium has developed concept designs that leverage innovations in connected and automated transport, including smaller and more flexible vessels, automated cargo handling, autonomous ships, standardized cargo units, and digital technologies. This proposed system necessitates policies at different levels to support its implementation and success.
Policies for advanced intermodal systems focus on technological advancements introduced by AEGIS, such as automation and autonomy in port handling and navigation. These policies require improvements in reporting and certification processes and should address administrative requirements, cybersecurity challenges, and workforce impacts. Additionally, policy support should facilitate the transition to a digitalized environment.
While this report provides recommendations for the overarching public policy framework, they must be complemented by legal work to reform rules and standards that perpetuate outdated policy paradigms. Separate reports will continue the analysis initiated here, focusing on the practical implementation of these policies. By providing an overview of the AEGIS project and analysing the relevant policy landscape, this report serves as a valuable resource for policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders interested in promoting sustainable, efficient, and innovative waterborne transport systems in Europe.

This report is part of Work Package 10 of the AEGIS project. This Work Package is focused on Use-Case C, which is about the revitalization of small and medium enterprise ports and terminals and their relocation out of city centres. This report on technology gaps and regulatory challenges in Danish case studies shows how port terminal infrastructure development plays a key role in the development of a new waterborne transport system for Europe. This report highlighted the impact of the AEGIS concept as experienced by Port of Aalborg and by Port of Vordingborg, as small and medium enterprise ports. On the side of technological gaps, the report analyses gaps related to digitalisation in communication and standardisation, cargo handling and infrastructural support for new autonomous vessels, namely the capabilities of small and medium enterprise ports. It is concluded that the biggest technological gap in port terminal automation is the ability for a system to react constructively to unknown and uncontrolled objects i.e., manually controlled equipment vs. automated equipment. On the side of regulatory challenges, the main conclusion is that the ownership structure of Danish ports politicizes some of the decisions of the management, which may hinder on efficiency for the sake of social sustainability. The lack of a clear incentive structure to develop port infrastructure is another regulatory challenge, as it introduces lack of foreseeability for terminal operators. This report generally concludes that there are gaps and challenges that cannot be addressed at the local level alone.

AEGIS is a next generation short sea shipping logistics concept that is currently under development. The objective is to solve some of the challenges faced by today's short sea shipping and maritime transport. This document, D2.5 Resilience in automated transport systems, is part of the AEGIS project work package 2, Logistics system redesign and resilience. This WP develops new methods for design of logistics systems for highly automated waterborne transport systems, where the method described in this report can be used to identify threats and possible barriers to be implemented with the ambition of reducing the consequences of an event. The whole work package objective is to emphasises possibilities inherent in autonomous ships, such as the possibilities for scaling down ship sizes to increase frequency and differentiate speeds, the use of more standardized cargo units and fully automated cargo handling in small and medium ports as well in transhipment terminals. The issue of cargo clearance (customs, phytosanitary, ISPS etc.) is also an important consideration, in particular for automation of work processes. Most of the actual redesign is done in the use cases (WP8 to WP10), but WP2 will provide tools and methods for analysing effects of redesigns and provide guidance for the process.

This document is AEGIS deliverable D2.2, Effects of standardized cargo units, which is the end result of work package 2 (WP2) task 2.2. This task focuses on analysing possibilities for more use of standard cargo units in maritime transport and, specially, in the AEGIS proposals

This document is AEGIS deliverable 2.3 "Handling export, import and security constraints" and gives an overview of ISPS processes and documents, and also of customs and cargo clearance processes and documents. It is based on questionnaires and workshops held with the project partners. The answers were reported both written and by having teleconferences.
Further, the report describes how the mother and daughter concept may affect the ISPS and customs clearance processes. This is relevant when transhipment is done between the mother and daughter vessels.

This document is AEGIS deliverable D10.1 "Potential transfer from road transport to short-sea-shipping in Denmark" and examines the potential gross volume that can be shifted from road transport to short-sea-shipping in Denmark, categorized by different goods types. This encompasses analyses of the price structure for transportation of the goods by both road transport and short-sea-shipping; including an analysis of last mile / destination delivery (cf. AEGIS, WP10, D10.1 Case C description). The report analyses all relevant goods in Denmark, including national and international goods. The report firstly identifies the type of goods that can be shifted (through time-value analysis), and subsequently includes discrete analyses of national and international goods that can be shifted. Analyses are on a regional level.

Executive summaries of confidential reports

Papers and articles

Autonomous cargo handling can increase usage of the short sea in last-mile shipping which can reduce emissions and road traffic congestion. For commercial and logistical feasibility of autonomous operations, a connected digital solution is required where all stakeholders participate throughout the cargo lifecycle. The connected digital solution solves the challenges around cargo data flow and information sharing. A cloud-based experimental platform is designed and developed that provides cargo information management and sharing for autonomous container handling. The platform essentially enables autonomous operations and
improves the efficiency of cargo flow from the origin to the destination, while keeping all stakeholders, actors, and systems in the loop.

In 2019, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) made it mandatory to support the electronic clearance of ships entering foreign ports. In preparation, the IMO Facilitation Committee started to develop a reference data model to harmonise the most important standards for ship clearance. The first version was published in 2020. The model is already extending into other areas of ship-port data exchanges and it is now increasingly seen as a tool to coordinate development of new electronic data exchange standards for ship operations. The lack of such coordination has, up until now, been a significant problem—much better coordination is essential in the relatively small and highly international market that shipping represents.


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