Reports and articles

On this page you can find various reports and articles relevant for the project.

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This report examines the potential gross volume that can be shifted from road transport to short-sea-shipping in Denmark, categorized by different goods types. This encompasses analyses of the price structure for transportation of the goods by both road transport and short-sea-shipping; including an analysis of last mile / destination delivery (cf. AEGIS, WP10, D10.1 Case C description).
The report analyses all relevant goods in Denmark, including national and international goods. The report firstly identifies the type of goods that can be shifted (through time-value analysis), and subsequently includes discrete analyses of national and international goods that can be shifted. Analyses are on a regional level.

The European maritime transport policy recognizes the importance of the waterborne transport systems as key elements for sustainable growth in Europe. A major goal is to transfer more than 50% of road transport to rail or waterways within 2050. However, waterways are at a disadvantage as they normally depend on transhipment and land transport to and from final destination. To meet this challenge we need a completely new approach to short sea and inland waterways shipping in Europe. This needs to include ships as well as ports and the digital information exchanges between them. A key element in this is automation of ships, ports and administrative tasks. The AEGIS project has been funded by the EU Commission to develop new knowledge and technology to address this challenge.

The concept of autonomous mobile robots (AMR) has gained much popularity in recent years, particularly in commercial settings where the name industrial autonomous mobile robot (IAMR) is proposed. In addition to automatic guided vehicles and automated mining trucks, IAMR also includes autonomous merchant ships. AMR is an old concept which was first introduced in the 1980s. Although the concept of AMRs is old and broadly used, there is still no common definition of autonomy when mobile robots are concerned. This paper will review some of the most known definitions and develop a taxonomy for autonomy in mobile autonomous robots. This will be used to compare the different definitions of robotic autonomy. This paper will mainly look at industrial autonomous mobile robots, i.e. systems that are designed to operate with a clear commercial objective in mind and which are normally supported by a remote control centre. This means that the robot is not fully autonomous, but to varying degrees dependent on humans in some control and monitoring functions.

The Concept of Operations, or ConOps, has become a central document for the specification, design and approval of autonomous ship systems and operations in the absence of prescriptive rules and regulations. The flexible structure of the ConOps and the fact that it is written in prose text makes it very accessible for all involved stakeholders, but also prone to discrepancies between the descriptions and the actual design. This paper proposes a description framework, for autonomous ship systems and operations, that covers the information items requested through the ConOps. The proposed framework has the potential to facilitate development of a formalized ConOps, which in turn could lead to a standardization of the current approval procedures for autonomous ship systems and operations.

In a previous paper we have suggested that the transferal of human accountability from an on-site human actor (such as the captain) to a remote human actor (such as the creator of the autonomous control system) could be regarded as the defining characteristic of autonomous systems. In this paper we take this approach one step further, by suggesting a methodology for how accountability can be used as a basis for systems design of autonomous and remote-controlled operations. Furthermore, the suggested methodology is applied on a hypothetical case of a vessel supporting both autonomous and remote-controlled operation.